As a result of changing immigration policies, the Chinese Canadian population increased after 1967. After a century of restrictions, Chinese Canadians began to be recognized as part and parcel of life in Canada. However, they still faced many social obstacles. In 1979, reacting to the public affairs program, W5, which depicted Chinese students as foreigners taking away university places from white Canadians, Chinese Canadians across the country demonstrated against the Canadian Television Network, which finally issued a public apology. In 1984, the increase in the Chinese immigrant population in Scarborough, Ontario, led to a racially biased public outcry against Chinese immigrants, blaming them as the cause of parking and traffic problems in the area.

由於移民政策的變化,華人的數目大增。經過了整整百年的重重艱辛,終於開始被加拿大社會所接受和認同。但是,他們仍然面臨許多社會障礙。 1979年,CTV 播出了W5專題節目,該節目將華人學生描述為外國人從加拿大白人手中奪走了大學學位,全國各地的加拿大華裔在加拿大電視台的示威下示威,該電視台最終公開道歉。 1984年,安大略省士嘉堡的華人人口增加,導致對華人的種族偏見強烈抗議,並將其歸咎於該地區停車和交通問題。

Recently, immigration policy was changed to accommodate business immigrants. Wealthy former Hong Kong residents moving to affluent west-side neighbourhoods in Vancouver, experienced hostility towards the luxury and glamour of their mansion-style homes. Yet Hong Kong immigrants brought substantial capital to Canada; $658 million in 1990 alone from just 455 entrepreneur. The immigrants from Hong Kong injected a huge amount of capital into housing and business developments in Canada, especially British Columbia.

 

Historical facts suggest that the road towards equality had been hazardous. After over a century of being in Canada, Chinese Canadians were eventually being accepted by all levels of society as equals. Chinese Canadians were moving into a new era. They were being treated equally, and were expected to act and participate in the shaping of Canada. Canada is still a very young and growing country. By participating actively, Chinese Canadians can help mould a new and unique Canadian identity based on many ethnic cultures. This is a challenge not only for Chinese but also for all cultural groups. By joining together we can create a unique Canadian culture and make Canada a land of hope.

最近,移民政策發生了變化,以適應商業移民。富有的前香港居民搬到溫哥華富裕的西區,部分當地人對豪宅風格的豪宅充滿了敵意。然而,香港移民為加拿大帶來了巨大的資本。僅在1990年,僅455名企業家移民就獲得了6.58億美元的收入。來自香港的移民為加拿大,特別是不列顛哥倫比亞省的住房和商業發展注入了大量資本。

歷史事實表明,通往平等的道路是危險的。在加拿大生活了一個多世紀之後,加拿大華裔最終被社會各階層平等地接受。中國人進入了一個新時代。他們受到平等對待,並有望採取行動並參與加拿大的塑造。加拿大仍然是一個非常年輕且成長中的國家。在多元文化的衝擊下,華裔通過積極的參與,以塑造出獨特的加拿大人這種身份角色。這不僅對中國人而且對所有文化團體都是一個挑戰。通過團結在一起,我們可以創造獨特的加拿大文化,並使加拿大充滿希望。

1968-1994

 Part 2

1947-1967

1968-1994 Part 1

"There is no record of the arrival of the first Chinese in Calgary. It appears, however, the Chinese pioneers were in the Calgary area by early 1885."

Current Contemporary Immigration

當代移民

  

Development of Calgary's Chinatowns

卡城華埠的發展

卡城華人先驅

關於第一位華人來到卡城的情況,沒有確實的記錄。

不過似乎早在1885年, 已有華人在卡城活動。他們與不列顛哥倫比亞省從事金礦,煤礦或者鐵路建築的華工不同。據信,在卡城聚居的華人多在牧場當廚師,家僕,或者經營生意,其中尤其以經營洗衣店為主。 在1888年, 已有幾家中國洗衣店在卡爾加里經營多時了。

Calgary Pioneers from the Orient

There is no record of the arrival of the first Chinese immigrant in Calgary. It appears, however, that Chinese pioneers were in the Calgary area by early 1885. Unlike the Chinese immigrants in British Columbia, the Chinese immigrants on the prairies were not associated with gold mining, coal mining or railway construction. These Chinese pioneers are believed to have found jobs on nearby cattle ranches, worked as cooks, houseboys or opened up their own businesses, especially laundries. In 1888 several Chinese immigrant run laundries had been operating for some time in Calgary.

第一和第二個唐人街

卡城的第一個唐人街始建於1890年代初期,位於街南與第九大道東南交匯處。1900年,它由兩間餐廳,一間洗手間,兩處雜貨和一間有二十張床的房間組成。一間餐廳的後面是一間社區室,作為華人社交活動之所。

自1901年開始,越來越多的華人來到卡城,並需要一個更大的唐人街。由於位置限制,第一個唐人街無法擴展,因此第二個唐人街誕生了。

The First Chinatown

Calgary’s first Chinatown, established in the early 1890s, was located on the corner of Centre Street South and Ninth Avenue East, across from the Canadian Pacific Railway station. By the 1900’s, it consisted of two restaurants, a hand laundry, two groceries and a twenty-bed rooming house. Behind one restaurant was a community room, where Chinese immigrants gathered to socialize.

 

After 1901 an increasing number of Chinese immigrants arrived in Calgary and a larger Chinatown was required. The first Chinatown could not expand, due to its restricted location, so a second Chinatown was born.

1892年天花暴亂

1892年發生了一件事情,證明了華人在卡城是不受歡迎的居民。6月,一個剛從溫哥華回來數週的洗衣工人患了天花。當局竟然下令燒毀了整間洗衣店,並將洗衣店內的居住的人囚禁在城外,以防傳染。

先後有九名中國人病了,三人死了。該鎮的居民把這種疾病歸咎於華人,並因其不衛生的生活條件而傳播。

8月2日,當政府釋放四名曾遭防疫隔離的華人時,有300多名白人毀了所有中國洗衣店的門窗,企圖將華人驅逐出卡城。暴民隨後洗劫了華人區,摧毀了財產,毆打了華人居民並搶劫。當警察出動鎮壓時,白人暴徒已經盡情地發洩了。

整個華人社區被暴力事件深深震撼,許多人在接下來的幾個晚上呆在警察兵營或教士之住所內以求庇護。西北騎警在卡城巡邏了三週,以保護卡城的華人免受進一步的襲擊。

1892 Smallpox Riot

In 1892 it became dramatically clear that Chinese Canadians were not welcome residents of Calgary. In June, a person of Chinese descent working at a laundry contracted smallpox after a visit to Vancouver several weeks earlier. When he fell ill, he was attended to by friends, but the building and all its contents were burned by civic authorities, and all its occupants were quarantined in an empty shack outside town.

 

Nine more Chinese Canadians fell ill, and three died later. The town's citizens alleged that the disease was brought by the Chinese people and spread by their unhygienic living conditions.

 

When the four Chinese Canadians in quarantine were released on August 2, a mob of over 300 men smashed the doors and windows of all the Chinese laundries to drive the Chinese Canadians out of town. The mob then ransacked the Chinese district, destroying property, assaulting Chinese residents and looting. The police were not brought in until the riot had finished its rampage.

 

The Chinese community was badly shaken up by the violence and many spent the next few nights at the Mounted Police barracks or at the homes of clergymen. The North-West Mounted Police patrolled the town for three weeks to protect Chinese Calgarians against any further attack.

第二個唐人街

1901 年, 一位基督教長老會的牧師企圖將福音傳播於唐人街,卻遭當地人士反對,認為不應把基督教傳給不同族類的華人;幾經波折,教會最後得到一位是虔誠教徒的市長支持,以低廉的租金將位於第一街西南與第十大道西南之間的小木屋,租給教會作為教堂之用;

同時,教會亦將鄰近的土地出租予中國商人。結果,另一個小型的唐人街遂團繞著教會而漸漸形成了。因此,到1910年,卡城的兩個唐人街被鐵軌隔開。第二唐人街唐人街由十二家企業,幾間社區室和客房設施組成,圍繞著第十大街的西南,以及中央街至三街之處,擁有十數間經營不同行業的商店,數間社區會堂以及宿舍。

The Second Chinatown

In 1901, Dr. J.C. Herdman, the minister of Knox Presbyterian Church, tried in vain to get a room for mission work in Chinatown. Local people did not support the idea of introducing Christianity to unassimilated Chinese immigrants. Mayor Thomas Underwood offered to rent him a small wooden building on 1st Street S.W., near 10th Avenue S.W. at a reduced rate.

 

​Rev. Herdman also rented nearby properties to Chinese businessmen, and another Chinatown emerged around the mission. Thus, by 1910, Calgary had two small Chinatowns separated by the railway tracks. The second Chinatown consisted of twelve businesses, several community rooms and rooming facilities, established around the Chinese Mission on Tenth Avenue S.W. between Centre and Third Streets.

第三個唐人街

(現在的唐人街)

1910年,卡城的第二個唐人街被迫搬遷。 6月,加拿大北部鐵路公司(Canadian Northern Railway)宣布了擬議的進入市區的路線,並提議在唐人街第二個地點附近建造一個酒店。此計劃一經揭露,即時令兩個唐人街的地產價格上揚。那時的店鋪,地主均非華人,彼等唯利是圖,不惜逐走華人租客,將地產出售。有鑑於此,華人認為必須他處自置地產。另建華埠。搬遷的必要性為當今的唐人街奠定了基礎。

幾位富有華商以一萬八千元購買了位於中央街與第二大道東南的一大片上地,並以二萬二千元在那裡興建了一幢兩層高的建欒物,樓下作店舖之用,樓上則作為住宅。該幢建築物現仍座落於現時的唐人街,但已幾經修葺。於是 在中央街大橋、凝望弓河(BOW RIVER) 之處,出現了第三個唐人街。當時有不少人嘲笑那塊土地是 低廉而被人棄置的土地,因為它正是接近低收入家庭居住的地區在1910年早期,最初出現的兩個唐人街消失了,而第三個唐人街正式形成。

The Third Chinatown

(Present Chinatown)

In 1910, Calgary’s second Chinatown was forced to relocate. In June, the Canadian Northern Railway announced its proposed route into the city and proposed construction of a hotel-depot near the second Chinatown site. Property values in the two Chinatowns soared, and the non-Chinese owners of the real estate concerned sold their holdings and expelled the Chinese tenants. Because of this expulsion, several wealthy Chinese community members decided to buy their own property elsewhere for a new Chinatown. This necessity to move laid the foundations for present-day Chinatown.

 

For $18,000, a group of Chinese community members bought land on Centre Street at 2nd Avenue SE. For another $22,000 they built a two-storey brick building (still standing) that had stores on the ground level and living quarters upstairs. The area was considered a ‘cheap dumping ground’ because it was near the dwellings of low income families. Thus, by the early 1910s, the first two Chinatowns were gone and the present day Chinatown in Calgary had begun.

Recently, immigration policy was changed to accommodate business immigrants. Wealthy former Hong Kong residents moving to affluent west-side neighbourhoods in Vancouver, experienced hostility towards the luxury and glamour of their mansion-style homes. Yet Hong Kong immigrants brought substantial capital to Canada; $658 million in 1990 alone from just 455 entrepreneur. The immigrants from Hong Kong injected a huge amount of capital into housing and business developments in Canada, especially British Columbia.

 

Historical facts suggest that the road towards equality had been hazardous. After over a century of being in Canada, Chinese Canadians were eventually being accepted by all levels of society as equals. Chinese Canadians were moving into a new era. They were being treated equally, and were expected to act and participate in the shaping of Canada. Canada is still a very young and growing country. By participating actively, Chinese Canadians can help mould a new and unique Canadian identity based on many ethnic cultures. This is a challenge not only for Chinese but also for all cultural groups. By joining together we can create a unique Canadian culture and make Canada a land of hope.

Calgary Pioneers from the Orient

There is no record of the arrival of the first Chinese immigrant in Calgary. It appears, however, that Chinese pioneers were in the Calgary area by early 1885. Unlike the Chinese immigrants in British Columbia, the Chinese immigrants on the prairies were not associated with gold mining, coal mining or railway construction. These Chinese pioneers are believed to have found jobs on nearby cattle ranches, worked as cooks, houseboys or opened up their own businesses, especially laundries. In 1888 several Chinese immigrant run laundries had been operating for some time in Calgary.

1892 Smallpox Riot

In 1892 it became dramatically clear that Chinese Canadians were not welcome residents of Calgary. In June, a person of Chinese descent working at a laundry contracted smallpox after a visit to Vancouver several weeks earlier. When he fell ill, he was attended to by friends, but the building and all its contents were burned by civic authorities, and all its occupants were quarantined in an empty shack outside town.

 

Nine more Chinese Canadians fell ill, and three died later. The town's citizens alleged that the disease was brought by the Chinese people and spread by their unhygienic living conditions.

 

When the four Chinese Canadians in quarantine were released on August 2, a mob of over 300 men smashed the doors and windows of all the Chinese laundries to drive the Chinese Canadians out of town. The mob then ransacked the Chinese district, destroying property, assaulting Chinese residents and looting. The police were not brought in until the riot had finished its rampage.

 

The Chinese community was badly shaken up by the violence and many spent the next few nights at the Mounted Police barracks or at the homes of clergymen. The North-West Mounted Police patrolled the town for three weeks to protect Chinese Calgarians against any further attack.

The First Chinatown

Calgary’s first Chinatown, established in the early 1890s, was located on the corner of Centre Street South and Ninth Avenue East, across from the Canadian Pacific Railway station. By the 1900’s, it consisted of two restaurants, a hand laundry, two groceries and a twenty-bed rooming house. Behind one restaurant was a community room, where Chinese immigrants gathered to socialize.

 

After 1901 an increasing number of Chinese immigrants arrived in Calgary and a larger Chinatown was required. The first Chinatown could not expand, due to its restricted location, so a second Chinatown was born.

The Second Chinatown

In 1901, Dr. J.C. Herdman, the minister of Knox Presbyterian Church, tried in vain to get a room for mission work in Chinatown. Local people did not support the idea of introducing Christianity to unassimilated Chinese immigrants. Mayor Thomas Underwood offered to rent him a small wooden building on 1st Street S.W., near 10th Avenue S.W. at a reduced rate.

 

​Rev. Herdman also rented nearby properties to Chinese businessmen, and another Chinatown emerged around the mission. Thus, by 1910, Calgary had two small Chinatowns separated by the railway tracks. The second Chinatown consisted of twelve businesses, several community rooms and rooming facilities, established around the Chinese Mission on Tenth Avenue S.W. between Centre and Third Streets.

The Third Chinatown

(Present Chinatown)

In 1910, Calgary’s second Chinatown was forced to relocate. In June, the Canadian Northern Railway announced its proposed route into the city and proposed construction of a hotel-depot near the second Chinatown site. Property values in the two Chinatowns soared, and the non-Chinese owners of the real estate concerned sold their holdings and expelled the Chinese tenants. Because of this expulsion, several wealthy Chinese community members decided to buy their own property elsewhere for a new Chinatown. This necessity to move laid the foundations for present-day Chinatown.

 

For $18,000, a group of Chinese community members bought land on Centre Street at 2nd Avenue SE. For another $22,000 they built a two-storey brick building (still standing) that had stores on the ground level and living quarters upstairs. The area was considered a ‘cheap dumping ground’ because it was near the dwellings of low income families. Thus, by the early 1910s, the first two Chinatowns were gone and the present day Chinatown in Calgary had begun.