About 4,000 Chinese immigrants and their descendents had made their home in Alberta when the Chinese Exclusion Act passed in 1923. Many Chinese immigrants were separated from their wives and loved ones for many years, if not forever. Charlie Chew, for example, was married in China in 1925. In 1930, as he recounted, “I wrote to Ottawa requesting that my wife be allowed to enter Canada. Ottawa refused, so I had to travel all the way to China to have a child.” Not until 1988 would Mr. Chew again see his wife. After a fifty-eight year separation, she was finally permitted to join him. For the first half of the century, there were only a dozen Chinese families in Calgary amid several hundred married bachelors.
1923年《排華法案》通過後，約有4,000名華人在艾伯塔省安家。當時， 很多華人都和他們的妻子和家人分隔兩地。例如，查理·趙（Charlie Chew）於1925年在中國結婚。他回憶說，1930年，“我寫信給渥太華要求申請我的妻子來加拿大。渥太華拒絕了，為了傳宗接代，我只能多次返中國與妻子相聚。直到1988年，趙先生的妻子獲批准來加團聚。在分離了58年之後，她終於准被獲批。在排華法案通過的半個世紀，卡城大約只有十二個華人家庭，其他大部分是“已婚的單身漢”。
During the period between World War One and Two, there was definite job discrimination against Chinese Canadians in Alberta. Mrs. Helen Mock completed high school in Calgary and then sought employment. Although she had taken a business course in high school, she could not obtain an office job. She believed that there was definitely discrimination at that time against Chinese Canadians who were looking for jobs. Finally she got a job in a knitting factory - working for Chinese people.
Mrs. Alice Louie-Byne was born in Canada. One of her sisters received training in nursing. But she said that no one in Calgary would employ her sister in nursing because she was Chinese. She had to leave Calgary and go to work in a small town. Referring to her own bitter experience, Mrs. Louse-Byne said that nobody could get good jobs in those days if you were Chinese. She wanted to write a civil service examination to try to secure a government job but they would not let her do so. All doors were closed.
The first generation of Chinese Canadians who grew up in the city’s Chinatown faced a grim future, as racial discrimination made it literally impossible for them to work in mainstream businesses outside Chinatown. Many looked to China for work. The ones that were of school age often were sent to China for education in the hope of getting away from the discriminatory environment.
1968-1994 Part 3
Discrimination and Racism
Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s Visit to Calgary
重要事件 孫中山先生 到訪卡加利
In Calgary, residents occasionally attempted to persuade the city to introduce and enforce restrictive measures directed against the Chinese community. In 1913 for instance, a group of citizens suggested that all Chinese residents be finger-printed and photographed for ready identification. The incensed Chinese community held meetings and denounced the scheme as undemocratic. The proposal was dropped.
In 1916, a garage on the outskirts of Chinatown was purchased by Chinese residents, who converted it into a Chinese theatre. A lobby of Calgary citizens opposed the location of the theatre and demanded that the city council pass a by-law prohibiting the theatre’s existence, but the council voted down the proposal.
In April 1911, Calgary and Vancouver were the only two Canadian cities visited by Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the founder of the Chinese National League, during his third visit to Canada. Supported by the Chi Gong Tong, Sun was raising funds for his revolution to overthrow the Ching Dynasty.
The Manchu government had a price on his head, but it couldn’t stop him from addressing a rally at the downtown Orpheum Theatre (formerly at 703 Centre Street, S.), attending banquets in his honour where the Ho Won Restaurant is now (210 Centre Street, S.), and speaking at Louie Kheong’s grocery, now the Gee Gong Restaurant (206C Centre St. S.). The Chinese community raised over a thousand dollars for Sun’s cause and today Chinese Calgarians can see Calgary’s name on a monument in Canton that commemorates the last daring uprising before the final overthrow of the Manchus. Dr. Sun’s visit was publicised in the local newspaper - "Alberta Morning” dated January 25, 1912.
Two years after Sun's visit, the Chinese National League was founded in Calgary.
1911 年 4 月 ，中國國民黨創立人孫中山先生訪問加拿大的兩個城市 - 卡加利和溫哥華。孫先生的訪問得到致公堂的支持 ， 希望爲他的革命事業籌款用以推翻滿清政府 。
當時 ， 滿清政府雖已懸紅加害孫中山先生 ， 卻並未能阻止他在奧芬劇場位於703中央街南對廣大群衆呼籲推翻滿清 ； 孫先生又先後在好運酒樓( 210中央街南） 及珠江酒樓（ 206(：中央街南 、 前雷強雜貨店 ） 發表言論 。 卡城華人社團曾爲孫先生的革命事業籌得超過一千元 。 直至今天 ，「 卡加利」的名字仍刻在廣東省的革命紀念碑上。 孫先生這歷史之行在本地報章 1" 亞省早報』 上亦有照片和報導 ， 日期爲九一二年一月廿五曰 。孫先生訪卡加利之後兩年 ， 中國國民黨便在此正式成立
As the Great Depression worsened in the 1930s, many Chinese people in Calgary lost their jobs. Chinatown's various associations could not cope with the demands upon them. By 1931 there were about 1,000 Chinese in Calgary, making it the largest Chinese community in the province.
Late in 1931 Chinese began applying for relief. Unemployed single Chinese people were granted an allowance of only $1.12 per week, but single non-Chinese people received $2.50 per week. The Chinese community’s dissatisfaction with discrimination directed to them grew. Their protests were totally ignored.
In 1937, about 80 unemployed Chinese community members staged a lie-down protest on streetcar tracks, demanding $2.50 per week. Nothing resulted from this. Peaceful sit-down protests continued throughout January. In February a similar protest turned violent and 13 Chinese community members were arrested.
The Chinese community’s cause garnered support from other groups, such as the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. They pressed the case for justice and finally the government raised the relief payments to $2.12 per week, still less than that of non-Chinese recipients.
A substantial change in the general public attitude towards the Chinese community developed during the Second World War. China and Canada were Allied powers, and Canadians were sympathetic to the suffering of the Chinese population under Japanese occupation and aggression. From 1937 to 1945, Calgary's Chinese community members alone raised over $200,000 for China relief.
After the war, attitudes towards Chinese Canadians were much improved. Overt racism had become extremely unpopular because of the Nazis' racial doctrines, and in 1947 the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed. Many Chinese families in Calgary were reunited.
Increasing acceptance and appreciation of the Chinese community members was demonstrated, for example, in a Calgary Herald editorial in 1952. "The extent to which the citizens of Chinese ancestry have been assimilated into [our] society accepting many of its forms while never losing touch with the greatness of their own culture is a pattern of successful immigration…" Because of previous attitudes, such an editorial would not have appeared before the Second World War.
Wartime cooperation was not the only influence on white Canadian attitudes. The emergence of family life and higher living standards among Canadian-born Chinese and Chinese immigrants were also a powerful force.
對華人的接受與重視程度逐漸提升。例如，1952年的本地報章有以下記載：【華人在僑居海外的的過程中不斷吸取本地文化並融入我們的社區中，卻不忘祖裔文化的優良傳統實是難能可貴... 】 這段社論在戰前是絕對不會出現的。