Artifact Date:

A.D. 1800 - 1899

Artifact Era/Dynasty:

Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1912)

Creator:

Unknown

Creator Ancestory:

Chinese

Department:

Our Chosen Land

Replica or Original:

Not a Replica

On Display, In Storage, or in a Private Offsite Collection:

On Display

Primary Material:

Paper

Medium:

Certificate

Dimensions:

Listen

00:00 / 01:04

    

A head tax certificate required by a Chinese immigrant arriving to Canada.
抵達加拿大的中國移民所需要的人頭稅證明。

    

Classification/Category:

Personal Objects

Specific Classification:

Legal Documents

Notable Signatures,

Inscriptions, and/or Markings:

not available

Donated by:

not available

Accession Number

1993.004.003

Catalogue Entry

As China struggled with rapid overpopulation, wage-labour jobs became scarce after China’s defeat in the First Opium War (1839-1842). Lower priced foreign manufactured goods also undercut the Chinese product industry. Law and order broke down when the the Taiping Rebellion broke out in 1850 and continued to 1864.  As a result of of massive industrial, political and environmental obstacles, many Chinese residents emigrated.


The first major law that Canada passed to limit Chinese immigration into the country, the Dominion Immigration Act, required Chinese Immigrants to pay a $50 head tax ($1387.50 with today’s inflation). Additionally, no inbound ship could contain more than 1 Chinese Immigrant per 50 tons of cargo. 


This Head Tax was increased to $100 ($3,204.70) in 1900 and $500 ($15,295.17) in 1903. A total of 24 million dollars were paid by Chinese immigrants to the Canadian government for the Head Tax from 1885 to 1923. No other immigrant group was subject to paying such fees when entering Canada.


Our Chosen Land features a Head Tax Certificate required by a Chinese immigrant arriving to Canada.


隨著中國快速的人口增長甚至過剩,中國在第一次鴉片戰爭(1839-1842)中戰敗後,僱傭勞動的工作變得稀缺。價格較低的外國製成品同時亦削弱了中國本土產品的行業。1850 年,太平天國爆發並持續到 1864 年,使治安瓦解。由於當時的工業、政治和環境受到龐大的障礙,許多中國居民選擇移居國外。


加拿大通過的第一條限制中國移民進入該國的主要法律,即自治領移民法,要求中國移民繳納 50 美元的人頭稅(按今天的通貨膨脹計算為 1387.50 美元)。此外,任何入境船舶每 50 噸貨物不得容納多於 1 名的中國移民。


這個人頭稅在 1900 年增加至 100 美元(3,204.70 美元),在1903 年更增加到 500 美元(15,295.17 美元)。從 1885 年到 1923 年,中國移民總共向加拿大政府支付了 2400 萬美元的人頭稅。然而,除中國移民外,沒有其他移民群體在進入加拿大時需要支付此類費用。


我們的《百年滄桑》展覽亦展出了抵達加拿大的中國移民所需的人頭稅證明。

Online References:

not available

Artifact Date:

A.D. 1800 - 1899

Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1912)

Artifact Era/Dynasty:

Unknown

Creator:

Chinese

Creator Ancestry:

Catalogue Entry

Online References:

not available

Department:

Our Chosen Land

On Display, In Storage, or in a Private Offsite Collection:

On Display

Replica or Original:

Not a Replica

A head tax certificate required by a Chinese immigrant arriving to Canada.
抵達加拿大的中國移民所需要的人頭稅證明。

Listen

00:00 / 01:04

Classification/Category:

Personal Objects

Specific Classification:

Legal Documents

Notable Signatures,

Inscriptions, and/or Markings:

not available

Primary Material:

Paper

Medium:

Certificate

Dimensions:

Donated by:

not available

Accession Number:

1993.004.003

Head Tax Certificate 人頭稅證明